Nutrition, condition of Nepal and unemployed manpower - Nepal Medicos Times
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Nutrition, condition of Nepal and unemployed manpower

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The balance between the nutrients the human body needs and the diet it consumes is called nutrition. Nutrition helps people to stay healthy and maintain and develop immunity. Both healthy and sick people of all age groups need good nutrition throughout their lives. Especially pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, babies, children need special kind of nutrition and care. According to various studies, rapid mental and physical development of children also takes place during this period. Today's children are the key manpower of tomorrow's country whose health and productivity determine the economic and social development of the country as a whole.

Generally, nutrition is not considered as the basis of human health but it is only necessary to control malnutrition. Government and non-government level programs have also been formulated with this in mind.

Malnutrition

As far as malnutrition is concerned, the concerned bodies have not been able to pay attention to the fact that it has changed its past and created a more dire situation. Malnutrition is basically a disease and debilitating condition of the body due to lack or excess of nutrients. It can be mainly classified into 3 parts; Malnutrition, over-nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

Developing countries like Nepal are plagued by malnutrition and more and more malnutrition is on the rise.

1) Low Nutrition: It is a vicious condition that appears to be due to lack of essential nutrients for a long time. Forms of malnutrition appear. Early malnutrition is cured after treatment under the supervision of a regular nutritionist.

2) Excess Nutrition: This is an acute form of modern malnutrition in which being overweight (excessive weight according to height), obesity and various other problems are caused. Such people are at high risk of non-communicable diseases such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, diabetes, and cancer.

3) Micronutrient Deficiency: It has micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamins, minerals, hormones and enzymes that interfere with the function and other direct health effects. For example: Vitamin A deficiency causes rheumatism, keratomalacia, corneal xerosis, iron deficiency anemia, iodine deficiency goiter, creatinine, vitamin B1 deficiency beriberi, and many other problems.

According to various statistics, pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and children are at high risk of malnutrition, while other age groups are equally affected by malnutrition. Currently, 155 million children under the age of five in the world are malnourished; Severe malnutrition is found in 52 million children and 17 million children. In the context of Nepal, there are many reasons such as illiteracy, poverty, lack of nutritional knowledge, unemployment, early marriage and pregnancy, infection of various diseases, food insecurity, lack of clean drinking water, lack of balanced diet, lack of care for at-risk groups, lack of adequate food and nutrients. There has been no significant improvement in malnutrition statistics.

Nepal's position in nutrition

Nepal does not have a long history in the field of nutrition. Nepal's first nutrition strategy came in 1978 which set up a nutrition unit. Growth monitoring and micronutrient distribution began in the 1980s. The first Nutrition Survey was conducted in 1985 in coordination with the US Department of Agriculture and the US Department of Health, and is considered to be the beginning of the Nutrition Journey to Nepal. Earlier, the Fifth and Sixth Five-Year Plans of 1975-90 seem to have given some space. After attending the first Health Policy Conference in 1991 and the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992, it seems to have made some strides in that decade. However, the 1990 Joint Nutrition Support Program was the first formal nutrition program. After this, even though the policies and programs were sporadic from time to time, it was considered as a show off due to lack of implementation. So far no one was able to send in the perfect solution, which is not strange.

Now let's look at the recent situation in Nepal. According to the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011, Pudkopan has been steadily improving from 56 percent in 1996 to 41 percent and 36 percent in 2016. Similarly, malnutrition decreased from 15 percent to 11 percent (2011) and remained at 10 percent in 2016. In the same period, the minimum weight decreased from 42 percent to 39 percent (2006) and reached 27 percent in 2016.

Overall, acute malnutrition is 10 percent and chronic malnutrition is 36 percent. According to the World Health Organization, 10-14 percent of early malnutrition cases are critical. Accordingly, Nepal now needs to bring more policies and programs and use manpower. Currently, 95 percent of households have access to iodized salt and 86 percent of children between the ages of 6 and 59 months have access to vitamin A. According to NDHS 2016, 53 percent of children under the age of five are still anemic. Adolescents 44 percent, pregnant women 46 percent, and women in the reproductive age group 41 percent suffer from anemia.

In Nepal, the number of people who are fully breastfed for six months is 66 percent which was 70 percent in 2011. Only 47 percent of children between the ages of 6 and 23 have a balanced diet. According to a recent survey of other forms of malnutrition, 0.6 percent of children under the age of five were overweight in 2001, up from 1.5 percent in 2016. Similarly, obesity has increased from 1 percent in 2001 to 5.1 percent in 2016. The problem of overweight has also increased from 5.5 percent to 17 percent. Of these, 22 percent are overweight and 15 percent are overweight. This ratio is higher among the economically strong. In terms of state structure, State-2 has the highest rate of acute malnutrition at 14.4 per cent, followed by State-1 at 11.8 per cent, Bagmati at 4.2 per cent, Gandaki at 5.8 per cent, State 5 at 7.6 per cent and Karnali. It is 7.5 percent in the states and 9.3 percent in the far western states.


Similarly, the lowest 57.5 percent was found in Karnali, which is 28.9 percent in State-2. Similarly, Pudkopana has the highest 55 percent in Karnali and 33 percent in State 1. The highest anemia among children aged 6-59 months is 59 percent in State-2 and 55 percent in State-1. In addition, people are eating a variety of high-fat, high-sugar, high-calorie, high-calorie, high-calorie foods on a daily basis due to Covid-19, but lack of physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes, heart, liver and kidney disease. Have shown.

Lack of nutritious and nutritious food in low-income families can lead to severe health problems in children, pregnant and lactating women, and there is no doubt that malnutrition will be rampant in developing countries like Nepal in the days to come. It is also weakening the immune system in ordinary people. According to a recent study published in The Lancet Global Health Journal by Johns Hopkins University's School of Public Health, the Covid-19 epidemic has left children under the age of five suffering from neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and severe malnutrition in the next six months. 40,000 will lose their lives. According to UNICEF, 4,000 people lost their lives in Nepal alone.

At the same time, the chances of getting pregnant are high and especially pregnant, lactating women, breastfeeding women and adolescents should be protected at all costs, said Paul Rutter, UNICEF Regional Health Adviser for South Asia.

Therefore, in order to prevent famine and malnutrition in the near future, the government and the local level should bring nutritional relief packages with the risky people in mind. The package includes the following 16 main types: rice (unpolished), mustard oil, mung bean and nuts, eggs, fruits, vitamin A capsules, jujube, best flour, green vegetables, iodized salt, iron and folic acid powder, Tablets, sanitary pads, condoms, Muwak tape should not be missed. If you do a little homework on time, you can avoid tomorrow's big problem. The average person should also consume foods rich in vitamins and minerals and avoid high-fat, high-calorie foods.

Looking at the nutrition statistics in Nepal for a moment, it seems that the rate of malnutrition has decreased in the last 20/25 years, but no significant improvement has been made yet. Also, looking at the last 10-15 years, the data shows that overweight and obesity have increased rapidly. During the formal nutrition journey that started in 1990, various policies and programs were formulated year after year. The National Nutrition Guideline of 2004 on which the Multi-sectoral Nutrition Plan 2012 and the current 2018-2022, Golden 1000 Days of 2014 are highlighted. The Nutrition Assessment and Inter-Analysis Report of 2009 found that the capacity of the central, district and community levels was insufficient to increase the implementation of health-related nutrition programs. However, ignoring this, various programs were formulated with the financial and technical support of various governmental and non-governmental organizations, but they did not reach the doorsteps and the nutrition programs are becoming meaningless as such programs do not cover more nutrition and obesity.


Or to put it another way, it is ridiculous to say that the government will meet the goal of sustainable development without using nutritional manpower in its implementation. Nepal aims to reduce malnutrition to 15 percent by 2030, malnutrition to 4 percent, low birth weight to 5 percent, anemia of children under 5 to 10 percent, obesity to less than 1 percent, and full breastfeeding to more than 90 percent. Proper mobilization of manpower is indispensable for this achievement.

According to the directive of the Government of Nepal and the report of the National Planning Commission, science-based undergraduate level nutritionists and dieticians are being produced at the rate of 30 per annum at the Central Technology Campus in Dharan. Similarly, science-based post-graduate level manpower is being produced in Cafodet College, Kathmandu under Purvanchal University. Padma Kanya Campus has been running this program for a long time so that Tribhuvan Science based students can study. Thus, on the one hand, statistics and studies have shown that the nutritional status of the country is at risk, while on the other hand, the government's inaction is reflected in the unemployment of hundreds of manpower produced annually. What is even more ironic is that this issue has not even been registered in any council so far.

Let's see what the law says.

Even after the Nepal Health Regulations were published in the Gazette on 2055/9/19, the first in 2060 BS, the second in 2061 BS and the third in 2068 BS, it has not been implemented as per the provisions of the regulations. There are 9th / 10th level Chief Nutrition Officer, Senior Nutrition Officer (8th), Nutrition Officer (7th), Nutrition Inspector (6th) level under the Health Inspection Group.

Similarly, under various groups, there will be Senior Dietitian Administrator (9th / 10th), Senior Dietitian Officer (8th), Senior Dietitian Inspector (7th), Dietitian Inspector (6th), Dietitian Supervisor (5th) and nutritionists. But the lack of clear qualifications in the regulations reveals policy weaknesses and qualifications.


As far as the additional government system is concerned, one dietitian is mandatory in every 50-bed hospital. But all these provisions are limited to paper records. Neither the public service has been able to open nor the management. Not only mobilization of such manpower but also diet related diseases like diabetes, cancer, heart, liver, lung and kidney play a major role in controlling malnutrition. Obesity control, gymkhana, athletes, workers and other age groups and different types of jobs to plan a diet, nutrition, genetics, nutraceuticals, research, the field of food, supplements and therapeutic food production, including nutrition and diet manpower is needed. And keeping them unemployed, we can never stop Nepal from falling another 100 years. Thus, by wasting the manpower that should be available at the state and local level, I will achieve the goal of sustainable development by 2030 and it is foolish to dream of a prosperous Nepal and happy Nepalis. This nutrition student requests the government to reach the parliament by selling nutrition issues and to turn over its election manifesto once again. It is now imperative for the government to immediately provide dieticians in every government and private hospital and to provide nutritionists in the formulation and formulation of every nutrition program.